Publications about 'analog computing' |
Articles in journal or book chapters |
Blum and Rivest showed that any possible neural net learning algorithm based on fixed architectures faces severe computational barriers. This paper extends their NP-completeness result, which applied only to nets based on hard threshold activations, to nets that employ a particular continuous activation. In view of neural network practice, this is a more relevant result to understanding the limitations of backpropagation and related techniques. |
This paper deals with finite size networks which consist of interconnections of synchronously evolving processors. Each processor updates its state by applying a "sigmoidal" function to a rational-coefficient linear combination of the previous states of all units. We prove that one may simulate all Turing Machines by such nets. In particular, one can simulate any multi-stack Turing Machine in real time, and there is a net made up of 886 processors which computes a universal partial-recursive function. Products (high order nets) are not required, contrary to what had been stated in the literature. Non-deterministic Turing Machines can be simulated by non-deterministic rational nets, also in real time. The simulation result has many consequences regarding the decidability, or more generally the complexity, of questions about recursive nets. |
We consider recurrent networks with real-valued weights. If allowed exponential time for computation, they turn out to have unbounded power. However, under polynomial-time constraints there are limits on their capabilities, though being more powerful than Turing Machines. Moreover, there is a precise correspondence between nets and standard non-uniform circuits with equivalent resources, and as a consequence one has lower bound constraints on what they can compute. We note that these networks are not likely to solve polynomially NP-hard problems, as the equality "P=NP" in our model implies the almost complete collapse of the standard polynomial hierarchy. We show that a large class of different networks and dynamical system models have no more computational power than this neural (first-order) model with real weights. The results suggest the following Church-like Thesis of Time-bounded Analog Computing: "Any reasonable analog computer will have no more power (up to polynomial time) than first-order recurrent networks." |
Conference articles |
Recent work by H.T. Siegelmann and E.D. Sontag (1992) has demonstrated that polynomial time on linear saturated recurrent neural networks equals polynomial time on standard computational models: Turing machines if the weights of the net are rationals, and nonuniform circuits if the weights are real. Here, further connections between the languages recognized by such neural nets and other complexity classes are developed. Connections to space-bounded classes, simulation of parallel computational models such as Vector Machines, and a discussion of the characterizations of various nonuniform classes in terms of Kolmogorov complexity are presented. |
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