Publications of Eduardo D. Sontag jointly with B.P. Ingalls
Articles in journal or book chapters
  1. A.O. Hamadeh, B.P. Ingalls, and E.D. Sontag. Transient dynamic phenotypes as criteria for model discrimination: fold-change detection in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chemotaxis. Proc. Royal Society Interface, 10:20120935, 2013. [PDF] Keyword(s): adaptation, biological adaptation, perfect adaptation, scale invariance, systems biology, transient behavior, symmetries, fcd, fold-change detection, chemotaxis.
    The chemotaxis pathway of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has many similarities to that of Escherichia coli. It exhibits robust adaptation and has several homologues of the latter's chemotaxis proteins. Recent theoretical results have correctly predicted that, in response to a scaling of its ligand input signal, Escherichia coli exhibits the same output behavior, a property known as fold-change detection (FCD). In light of recent experimental results suggesting that R. sphaeroides may also show FCD, we present theoretical assumptions on the R. sphaeroides chemosensory dynamics that can be shown to yield FCD behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that these assumptions make FCD a property of this system that is robust to structural and parametric variations in the chemotaxis pathway, in agreement with experimental results. We construct and examine models of the full chemotaxis pathway that satisfy these assumptions and reproduce experimental time-series data from earlier studies. We then propose experiments in which models satisfying our theoretical assumptions predict robust FCD behavior where earlier models do not. In this way, we illustrate how transient dynamic phenotypes such as FCD can be used for the purposes of discriminating between models that reproduce the same experimental time-series data.

  2. D. Angeli, B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. Separation principles for input-output and integral-input-to-state stability. SIAM J. Control Optim., 43(1):256-276, 2004. [PDF] [doi:] Keyword(s): input to state stability, integral input to state stability, iISS, ISS, input to output stability.
    We present new characterizations of input-output-to-state stability. This is a notion of detectability formulated in the ISS framework. Equivalent properties are presented in terms of asymptotic estimates of the state trajectories based on the magnitudes of the external input and output signals. These results provide a set of "separation principles" for input-output-to-state stability , characterizations of the property in terms of weaker stability notions. When applied to the closely related notion of integral ISS, these characterizations yield analogous results.

  3. D. Angeli, B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. Uniform global asymptotic stability of differential inclusions. J. Dynam. Control Systems, 10(3):391-412, 2004. [PDF] [doi:] Keyword(s): differential inclusions.
    The stability of differential inclusions defined by locally Lipschitz compact valued maps is addressed. It is shown that if such a differential inclusion is globally asymptotically stable, then in fact it is uniformly globally asymptotically stable (with respect to initial states in compacts). This statement is trivial for differential equations, but here we provide the extension to compact (not necessarily convex) valued differential inclusions. The main result is presented in a context which is useful for control-theoretic applications: a differential inclusion with two outputs is considered, and the result applies to the property of global error detectability.

  4. B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. An infinite-time relaxation theorem for differential inclusions. Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 131(2):487-499, 2003. [PDF]
    The fundamental relaxation result for Lipschitz differential inclusions is the Filippov-Wazewski Relaxation Theorem, which provides approximations of trajectories of a relaxed inclusion on finite intervals. A complementary result is presented, which provides approximations on infinite intervals, but does not guarantee that the approximation and the reference trajectory satisfy the same initial condition.

  5. E.D. Sontag and B.P. Ingalls. A small-gain theorem with applications to input/output systems, incremental stability, detectability, and interconnections. J. Franklin Inst., 339(2):211-229, 2002. [PDF] Keyword(s): input to state stability, ISS, Small-Gain Theorem, small gain.
    A general ISS-type small-gain result is presented. It specializes to a small-gain theorem for ISS operators, and it also recovers the classical statement for ISS systems in state-space form. In addition, we highlight applications to incrementally stable systems, detectable systems, and to interconnections of stable systems.

Conference articles
  1. A. O. Hamadeh, E.D. Sontag, and B.P. Ingalls. Response time re-scaling and Weber's law in adapting biological systems. In Proc. American Control Conference, pages 4564-4569, 2013. [PDF] Keyword(s): adaptation, biological adaptation, perfect adaptation, scale invariance, systems biology, transient behavior, symmetries, fcd, fold-change detection, chemotaxis.
    Recent experimental work has shown that transient E. coli chemotactic response is unchanged by a scaling of its ligand input signal (fold change detection, or FCD), and this is in agreement with earlier mathematical predictions. However, this prediction was based on certain particular assumptions on the structure of the chemotaxis pathway. In this work, we begin by showing that behavior similar to FCD can be obtained under weaker conditions on the system structure. Namely, we show that under relaxed conditions, a scaling of the chemotaxis system's inputs leads to a time scaling of the output response. We propose that this may be a contributing factor to the robustness of the experimentally observed FCD. We further show that FCD is a special case of this time scaling behavior for which the time scaling factor is unity. We then proceed to extend the conditions for output time scaling to more general adapting systems, and demonstrate this time scaling behavior on a published model of the chemotaxis pathway of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This work therefore provides examples of how robust biological behavior can arise from simple yet realistic conditions on the underlying system structure.

  2. A.O. Hamadeh, B.P. Ingalls, and E.D. Sontag. Fold-Change Detection As a Chemotaxis Model Discrimination Tool. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Maui, Dec. 2012, 2012. Note: Paper WeC09.2.Keyword(s): adaptation, biological adaptation, perfect adaptation, scale invariance, systems biology, transient behavior, symmetries, fcd, fold-change detection, chemotaxis.

  3. B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. A relaxation theorem for differential inclusions with applications to stability properties. In D. Gilliam and J. Rosenthal, editors, Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems, Electronic Proceedings of MTNS-2002 Symposium held at the University of Notre Dame, August 2002, 2002. Note: (12 pages). [PDF]
    The fundamental Filippov--Wazwski Relaxation Theorem states that the solution set of an initial value problem for a locally Lipschitz inclusion is dense in the solution set of the same initial value problem for the corresponding relaxation inclusion on compact intervals. In a recent paper of ours, a complementary result was provided for inclusions with finite dimensional state spaces which says that the approximation can be carried out over non-compact or infinite intervals provided one does not insist on the same initial values. This note extends the infinite-time relaxation theorem to the inclusions whose state spaces are Banach spaces. To illustrate the motivations for studying such approximation results, we briefly discuss a quick application of the result to output stability and uniform output stability properties.

  4. B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. Measurement to error stability: a notion of partial detectability for nonlinear systems. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Las Vegas, Dec. 2002, IEEE Publications, pages 3946-3951, 2002. [PDF] Keyword(s): input to state stability.
    For systems whose output is to be kept small (thought of as an error output), the notion of input to output stability (IOS) arises. Alternatively, when considering a system whose output is meant to provide information about the state (i.e. a measurement output), one arrives at the detectability notion of output to state stability (OSS). Combining these concepts, one may consider a system with two types of outputs, an error and a measurement. This leads naturally to a notion of partial detectability which we call measurement to error stability (MES). This property characterizes systems in which the error signal is detectable through the measurement signal. This paper provides a partial Lyapunov characterization of the MES property. A closely related property of stability in three measures (SIT) is introduced, which characterizes systems for which the error decays whenever it dominates the measurement. The SIT property is shown to imply MES, and the two are shown to be equivalent under an additional boundedness assumption. A nonsmooth Lyapunov characterization of the SIT property is provided, which yields the partial characterization of MES. The analysis is carried out on systems described by differential inclusions -- implicitly incorporating a disturbance input with compact value-set.

  5. B.P. Ingalls, D. Angeli, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. Asymptotic characterizations of IOSS. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Orlando, Dec. 2001, IEEE Publications, 2001, pages 881-886, 2001. Keyword(s): nonlinear control, feedback stabilization, input to state stability.

  6. E.D. Sontag, B.P. Ingalls, and Y. Wang. Generalizations of asymptotic gain characterizations of ISS to input-to-output stability. In Proc. American Control Conf., Arlington, June 2001, pages 2279-2284, 2001. Keyword(s): input to state stability, ISS.

  7. B.P. Ingalls, E.D. Sontag, and Y. Wang. Remarks on input to output stability. In Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Phoenix, Dec. 1999, IEEE Publications, 1999, pages 1226-1231, 1999. Keyword(s): input to state stability, integral input to state stability, input to output stability.



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