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Publications about 'gene networks'
Articles in journal or book chapters
  1. M. Ali Al-Radhawi, A.P. Tran, E. Ernst, T. Chen, C.A. Voigt, and E.D. Sontag. Distributed implementation of Boolean functions by transcriptional synthetic circuits. ACS Synthetic Biology, pp A-P, 2020. [PDF] [doi:10.1021/acssynbio.0c00228] Keyword(s): synthetic biology, transcriptional networks, gene networks, boolean circuits, boolean gates.
    Abstract:
    Starting in the early 2000s, sophisticated technologies have been developed for the rational construction of synthetic genetic networks that implement specified logical functionalities. Despite impressive progress, however, the scaling necessary in order to achieve greater computational power has been hampered by many constraints, including repressor toxicity and the lack of large sets of mutually-orthogonal repressors. As a consequence, a typical circuit contains no more than roughly seven repressor-based gates per cell. A possible way around this scalability problem is to distribute the computation among multiple cell types, which communicate among themselves using diffusible small molecules (DSMs) and each of which implements a small sub-circuit. Examples of DSMs are those employed by quorum sensing systems in bacteria. This paper focuses on systematic ways to implement this distributed approach, in the context of the evaluation of arbitrary Boolean functions. The unique characteristics of genetic circuits and the properties of DSMs require the development of new Boolean synthesis methods, distinct from those classically used in electronic circuit design. In this work, we propose a fast algorithm to synthesize distributed realizations for any Boolean function, under constraints on the number of gates per cell and the number of orthogonal DSMs. The method is based on an exact synthesis algorithm to find the minimal circuit per cell, which in turn allows us to build an extensive database of Boolean functions up to a given number of inputs. For concreteness, we will specifically focus on circuits of up to 4 inputs, which might represent, for example, two chemical inducers and two light inputs at different frequencies. Our method shows that, with a constraint of no more than seven gates per cell, the use of a single DSM increases the total number of realizable circuits by at least 7.58-fold compared to centralized computation. Moreover, when allowing two DSM's, one can realize 99.995\% of all possible 4-input Boolean functions, still with at most 7 gates per cell. The methodology introduced here can be readily adapted to complement recent genetic circuit design automation software.


  2. M. A. Al-Radhawi, D. Del Vecchio, and E. D. Sontag. Multi-modality in gene regulatory networks with slow gene binding. PLoS Computational Biology, 15:e1006784, 2019. [PDF] Keyword(s): multistability, gene networks, Markov Chains, Master Equation, cancer heterogeneity, phenotypic variation, nonlinear systems, stochastic systems, epigenetics, chemical master equations.
    Abstract:
    In biological processes such as embryonic development, hematopoietic cell differentiation, and the arising of tumor heterogeneity and consequent resistance to therapy, mechanisms of gene activation and deactivation may play a role in the emergence of phenotypically heterogeneous yet genetically identical (clonal) cellular populations. Mathematically, the variability in phenotypes in the absence of genetic variation can be modeled through the existence of multiple metastable attractors in nonlinear systems subject with stochastic switching, each one of them associated to an alternative epigenetic state. An important theoretical and practical question is that of estimating the number and location of these states, as well as their relative probabilities of occurrence. This paper focuses on a rigorous analytic characterization of multiple modes under slow promoter kinetics, which is a feature of epigenetic regulation. It characterizes the stationary distributions of Chemical Master Equations for gene regulatory networks as a mixture of Poisson distributions. As illustrations, the theory is used to tease out the role of cooperative binding in stochastic models in comparison to deterministic models, and applications are given to various model systems, such as toggle switches in isolation or in communicating populations and a trans-differentiation network.


  3. T. Kang, R. Moore, Y. Li, E.D. Sontag, and L. Bleris. Discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112:12893-12898, 2015. [PDF] Keyword(s): modular response analysis, stochastic systems, reverse engineering, gene networks, synthetic biology, feedforward.
    Abstract:
    Reverse engineering of biological pathways involves an iterative process between experiments, data processing, and theoretical analysis. In this work, we engineer synthetic circuits, subject them to perturbations, and then infer network connections using a combination of nonparametric single-cell data resampling and modular response analysis. Intriguingly, we discover that recovered weights of specific network edges undergo divergent shifts under differential perturbations, and that the particular behavior is markedly different between different topologies. Investigating topological changes under differential perturbations may address the longstanding problem of discriminating direct and indirect connectivities in biological networks.


  4. M. Miller, M. Hafner, E.D. Sontag, N. Davidsohn, S. Subramanian, P. E. M. Purnick, D. Lauffenburger, and R. Weiss. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity. PLoS Computational Biology, 8:e1002579-, 2012. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, homeostasis, stem cells, synthetic biology.
    Abstract:
    Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of beta-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation, and its impact on overall system performance once integrated.


  5. E.D. Sontag. Monotone and near-monotone systems. In I. Queinnec, S. Tarbouriech, G. Garcia, and S-I. Niculescu, editors, Biology and Control Theory: Current Challenges (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences Volume 357), pages 79-122. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007. Note: Conference version of ``Monotone and near-monotone biochemical networks,'' basically the same paper.Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, monotone systems, Ising spin models, nonlinear stability, dynamical systems, consistent graphs, gene networks.
    Abstract:
    See abstract and pdf for ``Monotone and near-monotone biochemical networks''.


  6. P. Berman, B. Dasgupta, and E.D. Sontag. Algorithmic issues in reverse engineering of protein and gene networks via the modular response analysis method. Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences, 1115:132-141, 2007. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, gene and protein networks, reverse engineering, systems identification, graph algorithms.
    Abstract:
    This paper studies a computational problem motivated by the modular response analysis method for reverse engineering of protein and gene networks. This set-cover problem is hard to solve exactly for large networks, but efficient approximation algorithms are given and their complexity is analyzed.


  7. P. Berman, B. Dasgupta, and E.D. Sontag. Randomized approximation algorithms for set multicover problems with applications to reverse engineering of protein and gene networks. Discrete Applied Mathematics Special Series on Computational Molecular Biology, 155:733-749, 2007. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, gene and protein networks, systems identification, reverse engineering.
    Abstract:
    This paper investigates computational complexity aspects of a combinatorial problem that arises in the reverse engineering of protein and gene networks, showing relations to an appropriate set multicover problem with large "coverage" factor, and providing a non-trivial analysis of a simple randomized polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the problem.


  8. E.D. Sontag. Monotone and near-monotone biochemical networks. Systems and Synthetic Biology, 1:59-87, 2007. [PDF] [doi:10.1007/s11693-007-9005-9] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, monotone systems, Ising spin models, nonlinear stability, dynamical systems, consistent graphs, gene networks.
    Abstract:
    This paper provides an expository introduction to monotone and near-monotone biochemical network structures. Monotone systems respond in a predictable fashion to perturbations, and have very robust dynamical characteristics. This makes them reliable components of more complex networks, and suggests that natural biological systems may have evolved to be, if not monotone, at least close to monotone. In addition, interconnections of monotone systems may be fruitfully analyzed using tools from control theory.


  9. M. Andrec, B.N. Kholodenko, R.M. Levy, and E.D. Sontag. Inference of signaling and gene regulatory networks by steady-state perturbation experiments: structure and accuracy. J. Theoret. Biol., 232(3):427-441, 2005. Note: Supplementary materials are here: http://www.math.rutgers.edu/(tilde)sontag/FTPDIR/andrec-kholodenko-levy-sontag-JTB04-supplementary.pdf. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, gene and protein networks, systems identification, reverse engineering.
    Abstract:
    One of the fundamental problems of cell biology is the understanding of complex regulatory networks. Such networks are ubiquitous in cells, and knowledge of their properties is essential for the understanding of cellular behavior. This paper studies the effect of experimental uncertainty on the accuracy of the inferred structure of the networks determined using the method in "Untangling the wires: a novel strategy to trace functional interactions in signaling and gene networks".


  10. B.N. Kholodenko, A. Kiyatkin, F.J. Bruggeman, E.D. Sontag, H.V. Westerhoff, and J. Hoek. Untangling the wires: a novel strategy to trace functional interactions in signaling and gene networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99:12841-12846, 2002. [PDF] Keyword(s): systems biology, biochemical networks, reverse engineering, gene and protein networks, protein networks, gene networks, systems identification.
    Abstract:
    Emerging technologies have enabled the acquisition of large genomics and proteomics data sets. This paper proposes a novel quantitative method for determining functional interactions in cellular signaling and gene networks. It can be used to explore cell systems at a mechanistic level, or applied within a modular framework, which dramatically decreases the number of variables to be assayed. The topology and strength of network connections are retrieved from experimentally measured network responses to successive perturbations of all modules. In addition, the method can reveal functional interactions even when the components of the system are not all known, in which case some connections retrieved by the analysis will not be direct but correspond to the interaction routes through unidentified elements. The method is tested and illustrated using computer-generated responses of a modeled MAPK cascade and gene network.



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Last modified: Wed Aug 12 16:21:48 2020
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