Publications by Eduardo D. Sontag in year 1998 |
Books and proceedings |
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Articles in journal or book chapters |
The Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension is an integer which helps to characterize distribution-independent learning of binary concepts from positive and negative samples. This paper, based on lectures delivered at the Isaac Newton Institute in August of 1997, presents a brief introduction, establishes various elementary results, and discusses how to estimate the VC dimension in several examples of interest in neural network theory. (It does not address the learning and estimation-theoretic applications of VC dimension, and the applications to uniform convergence theorems for empirical probabilities, for which many suitable references are available.) |
This paper provides lower and upper bounds for the VC dimension of recurrent networks. Several types of activation functions are discussed, including threshold, polynomial, piecewise-polynomial and sigmoidal functions. The bounds depend on two independent parameters: the number w of weights in the network, and the length k of the input sequence. Ignoring multiplicative constants, the main results say roughly the following: 1. For architectures whose activation is any fixed nonlinear polynomial, the VC dimension is proportional to wk. 2. For architectures whose activation is any fixed piecewise polynomial, the VC dimension is between wk and w**2k. 3. For architectures with threshold activations, the VC dimension is between wlog(k/w) and the smallest of wklog(wk) and w**2+wlog(wk). 4. For the standard sigmoid tanh(x), the VC dimension is between wk and w**4 k**2. |
This paper considers the problem of stabilization of linear systems for which only the magnitudes of outputs are measured. It is shown that, if a system is controllable and observable, then one can find a stabilizing controller, which is robust with respect to observation noise (in the ISS sense). |
The following learning problem is considered, for continuous-time recurrent neural networks having sigmoidal activation functions. Given a ``black box'' representing an unknown system, measurements of output derivatives are collected, for a set of randomly generated inputs, and a network is used to approximate the observed behavior. It is shown that the number of inputs needed for reliable generalization (the sample complexity of the learning problem) is upper bounded by an expression that grows polynomially with the dimension of the network and logarithmically with the number of output derivatives being matched. |
This note discusses two integral variants of the input-to-state stability (ISS) property, which represent nonlinear generalizations of L2 stability, in much the same way that ISS generalizes L-infinity stability. Both variants are equivalent to ISS for linear systems. For general nonlinear systems, it is shown that one of the new properties is strictly weaker than ISS, while the other one is equivalent to it. For bilinear systems, a complete characterization is provided of the weaker property. An interesting fact about functions of type KL is proved as well. |
For analytic discrete-time systems, it is shown that uniform forward accessibility implies the generic existence of universal nonsingular control sequences. A particular application is given by considering forward accessible systems on compact manifolds. For general systems, it is proved that the complement of the set of universal sequences of infinite length is of the first category. For classes of systems satisfying a descending chain condition, and in particular for systems defined by polynomial dynamics, forward accessibility implies uniform forward accessibility. |
Conference articles |
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